Thursday, July 23, 2020
Mental Health Resources to Help During the Holidays Mental Health Resources to Help During the Holidays Mental Health Resources to Help During the HolidaysIts all too easy to get depressed around the holidays. This year, give yourself the gift of getting help. While the holidays are often a happy time, they can be tough for many people. A survey conducted by the National Alliance on Mental Illness found that 64% of people said theyâre affected by the âholiday blues,â and 24% said it affects them a lot.You shouldnât feel bad about feeling bad, but if you do want to try and enjoy the holiday cheer, there are mental health resources you can use and steps you can take to try to improve your mood.Dial 211Youâve definitely heard of 911. And youâve probably heard of 411. But did you know there were other X11 numbers out there for Americans to call? Like 211, which was created back in 2000 to provide callers access to different kinds of local community services. Those services include resources to access food and shelter, especially for those who might have trouble affording them. Relevant to the topic at hand, you can dial a french hen and a partridge in a pear tree twice (thatâs 211 in Christmas numbers) to gain access to affordable local mental health resources, like counseling and support groups. It might be known as the season of giving, but thereâs no reason it canât also be the season of asking for help if you need it!Check this online resourceMentalhealth.gov has a list of resources for affordable mental health access, including links specifically for veterans. We know nobody likes making phone calls anymore, so this is a way to hopefully get some help without having toâ"ughâ"talk to someone out loud.SMS SOSSpeaking of not making phone calls, there are resources you can text if you want to use your phone to get help but, as mentioned above, youâd rather hide under a rock than have a conversation on the phone.7 Cups is a resource that lets you text or online chat a therapeutic âlistener.â You can choose your listener based on their spec ialties, expertise, and other characteristics. Whether you just need a quick person to talk to or longer-term help, 7 Cups could be a way to get over the holiday blues, as well as blues you face at other times of year too.If youâre having a serious emergency situation, you can reach out to the Crisis Text Line. They do warn you on the site that itâs only if you have an urgent need, so while it could be a lifesaver, you should stick to the other links weâve provided if youâre not at a crisis point.Small steps each dayIn addition to people youâve never met that you can reach out to, you shouldnât hesitate opening up to friends and family, if you feel comfortable doing so. There are also steps you can take on your own to try and make the dark days of winter a little brighter.âPractice acceptance,â suggested therapist Kimberly Hershenson. âMake a list of what you can control in the situation (getting enough sleep, eating well) and what you cant control (your kid having a temper tantrum). Focus on what you can control to make change and accept what you cannot control.âAnd thatâs not all!âRead affirmations every morning. Starting your day with positivity kickstarts your day on the right foot,â advised Hershenson. âStart a meditation practice. Search guided meditation on YouTube or download a free app such as 10% happier (which teaches you meditation techniques).âHershenson also contributed to a previous post we did about managing your mental health on a budget. All of the tips from that article can be applied to holiday or season-specific depression. One such tip Hershenson offered was about technology before bed: âTurn off the TV, computer, and your phone an hour before bed. Technology stimulates the brain causing our minds to stay active and unable to wind down. Turning off technology allows us to slow down and prepares the body for rest.âAlisa Kamis-Brinda, psychotherapist and owner of Serenity Solutions Therapy was also a cont ributor to that previous mental health post. She directed us towards a list of tips she had written on her site for dealing with the holiday blues:Get 7-9 hours of sleep each night.Eat healthy meals and avoid overeating at parties. Fill up on fruits and vegetables and avoid standing near the dessert table.Avoid excessive alcohol use. Drink water and other non-alcoholic beverages.Exercise for stress management. If you struggle to find time in your schedule for this, park in the furthest spot at the mall and walk an extra 10 minutes while you are there.Schedule time for you. Not every minute needs to be filled with shopping, cooking, cleaning, and visiting.Say ânoâ when your schedule is too busy.Plan to spend time with positive people and limit time with those who are toxic. Consider volunteering to be around people who care.Make a budget and stick to it. Itâs not worth it to overspend now and struggle with finances in the new year.Be realistic about your expectations regarding how others will behave. Donât expect Aunt Sally and cousin Joe to get along if they fight every year at the holiday dinner.Take pressure off of yourself. It is more important for your mental health to follow the above steps than it is to try to be perfect and get everything done. Prioritize, delegate and give yourself a break.Giving yourself a break from the phones and the computers every so often is probably a good idea regardless of the time of day. We have constant access to infinite information these days, and much of it can be stressful. You shouldnât feel bad about taking a break for your own well-being, especially when it comes to something you couldnât fix anyway.As Hershenson said above, itâs important to try and focus on the things you can change. Since it is the season of giving, you could even consider volunteering if youâre able to and up for it. It can help you feel like youâre making a positive change in the world and might take your mind off your own prob lems for a little bit.Regardless, know that help is always out there. We hope you have a festive and cheerful holiday season, and that the blues donât get to you too much.How do you deal with holiday stress? We want to hear from you! You can email us or you can find us on Facebook and Twitter.ContributorsAlisa Kamis-Brinda, LCSW, LCADC,(@SerenityAlisa) owner and primary psychotherapist at Serenity Solutions, LLC, in Philadelphia, PA, helps overwhelmed, stressed out professionals and new moms learn how to slow down anxious and angry thoughts so that they can be in the present moment, relax and enjoy life again.Kimberly Hershenson (@kimhershlmsw) has worked successfully with clients who have experienced problems such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, substance abuse, personality disorders, and difficult relationships. Her aim is to create a warm, supportive, and safe space for her clients to help achieve their personal goals. She believes that, together, they can wor k on understanding feelings and behaviors regarding clientsâ areas of concern while helping them to practice healthier coping mechanisms in order to fully participate in life.
Friday, May 22, 2020
The Regimes of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler with Social and Political Modernization Both the Fascist and Nazi regimes of Mussolini and Hitler undoubtedly changed the world and the course of modern history forever with their vast plans for state expansion, social change and their newly acquired taste for empire building. Both men had ambitious ideas which they implemented in their countries each believing their own right-wing ideology to be the true path to greatness and glory for their respective empires, and both men bought about huge social and political change within their regimes, however one must remember that although Hitler and Mussolini were both right-wing dictators, they were twoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Mussolini was attracted to the Italian symbol called Ã¢â¬ËfascesÃ¢â¬â¢ which was an ancient Roman symbol of the life and death power of the state, bundles of the lictorsÃ¢â¬â¢ rods of chastisement which, when bound together were stronger than when they were apart, reflecting the intellectual debt that Fascism owed to Socialism and presaging t he symbolism of the renewed and even greater Roman empire that Mussolini would dream about creating. Fascism became an actual organized political movement after a meeting took place in Milan on March 23rd 1919 and Mussolini had by then formed the Ã¢â¬ËFasci di CombattimentoÃ¢â¬â¢ or what became know as the Fascist Black shirts, so called due to their distinctive black uniforms. These armed Fascist groups led by Mussolini were primarily made up of Italian war veterans called Ã¢â¬ËsquadristiÃ¢â¬â¢. During the early twenties in Italy the Italian Communist Party had strong support, especially among the peasants and lower working classes who were facing extreme poverty whilst a few Italians prospered. The Communists called on peasants to seize landowners property and assets across the countryside and willed on by their leaders gangs of armed peasants roamed the countrysideShow MoreRelatedBenito Mussolinis Doctrine of Fascism Essay1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDOCTRINE OF FASCISM Benito Mussolini outlines several essential characteristics of his preferred political ideology, Fascism, in what has become known as the Doctrine of Fascism. In this paper, Mussolini outlines his vision of the ideology, and explains the major issues that Fascism will address once it becomes the leading political system in Italy. MussoliniÃ¢â¬â¢s major points as outlined in the Doctrine included an extreme emphasis on nationalism, organization and modernization of the state, persistentRead MoreEssay about Spanish Government1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGerman dictator Adolf Hitler and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini sent transport planes that assisted Franco in the first major airlift in modern warfare. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In 1939 an General Named Franco came to power declaring a dictatorship. He was a follower of Hitler. He died on November 20th 1975. He kept Spain out of WWII. His dictatorship lasted 36 years. He passed the Law of Succession. Franco left a mixed legacy. His leadership ended the political bickering and social turmoil thatRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesDavid M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform Michael Adas, ed., Agricultural and Pastoral Societies
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Endia Jones Matt Simon English 101 14 July 2015 Modern Education: Is there a Choice? Becoming a parent is scary, overwhelming. No matter how much one might prepare, parenting is a job for which no one can prepare. In the beginning, every time you contemplate responsibility that tiny being placed in your care I imagine awe and freaking out would be the best way to describe the emotions rolling about. Thus begins the journey of parenthood. A parent baths, cuddles, prepares the house for babyÃ¢â¬â¢s first steps, records their first words and ultimately starts them on the road to lifelong learning. At first so much is dependent upon you, the parent. You after all are your childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s first heroes. In the beginning you can do no wrong so inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Learning must be Ã¢â¬Å"constructedÃ¢â¬ through opportunities to interact with sensory things so they can develop a personal understanding of the world around them. Therefore learning must be an active process. These theorists also emphasize the importance of language in learning. Constru ctivists believe in the social element of learning where a child seeks to understand their peersÃ¢â¬â¢ view of the world in comparison to their own views. It is a process that does not produce instantaneous learning so there is a need to develop a sense of meaning, application and purpose. One of Howard Gardner Ã¢â¬â¢s eight multiple intelligences , bodily kinesthetic intelligence involves the ability to hold objects, body control and coordination. Possession of bodily kinesthetic intelligence means an individual can initiate body movements in concert with thoughts, feelings, and ideas. Sports activities (for example baseball, basketball, football, soccer, etc.) as well as dance, mime, drama, and martial arts require this ability. Bodily kinesthetic intelligence needs to be developed and must not be sacrificed in favor of verbal linguistic intelligence and logical mathematical intelligence, which most schools today heavily emphasize in their curriculum and assessments. (Leonard, 16) A behaviorist believes that instruction is fostered by observable, measurable, and controllable objectives set by the instructor. The learner is then asked to produce a
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Good morning teacher and fellow students. The idea that we continue on as we are: unchanged, unchanging is unbelievably illogical. In a time and world where things are constantly changing, it is impossible to be in existence without being affected by the process of change. We will write a custom essay sample on Sky High or any similar topic only for you Order Now Changes are inevitable, and they are happening everywhere around us. In our stimulus booklet, it is evident that changes are a major part in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, this is best portrayed in the story Ã¢â¬Å"Sky HighÃ¢â¬ . This story is filled with strong imagery, based on the clothesline in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood memories. The author mesmerize her childhood memories of the clothesline, and how she used to pretend what it is, how the clothes are like signal flags and also how much fun she used to have with it. As the author matures in her perspective, her views about the past starts to change and she no longer sees the clothes line through a childÃ¢â¬â¢s naive, imaginative view, but now sees it as a memory, and just a tool which she her self uses. The author is able to perceive the two different perspectives and compare them. As we can now see, change is a part of growing up, of maturing and going forward, just like Hannah Robert, the author of Ã¢â¬Å"Sky HighÃ¢â¬ . The prescribed text IÃ¢â¬â¢m here to present you with is Ã¢â¬Å"The Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬ . Nick Caraway the narrator in the story is the one who we are focusing on the change which he goes through. Nick in the beginning wants to chase after the Ã¢â¬Å"great American dreamÃ¢â¬ like everyone else. He then realizes, how low the people were in achieving that goal, this could be seen when Jordan was cheating while playing golf. He also saw the carelessness these people have in doing things. They are only skin deep in who they are, like the main person described in the story, Gatsby, who is only known for his money and by his name, but not by who he really is. At the end, Nick realizes all this and changes his views on the Great American Dream, and realizes that it is only an expression of materialism. This took him a step further in life, as he changed his views, and helped him grow as a person. The last text I want to present to you with is Ã¢â¬Å"Looking for AlibrandiÃ¢â¬ . We noticed a number of changes that occurred in the story, which affected the lives of the Alibrandis within the 3 generations. We see a strong bond between Josie and Christina in the story because she was raised by a single parent. Josie was greatly influenced by her mother for decision-making and had a biased opinion about her father. But soon after she had personal contact with him, she comes to realization that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t so bad after all. The relationship between the 3 generations was also a disaster. Josie was often irritated by her grandmother, Katia at the beginning of the story but as she journeys through and discovers the real Nonna with the great sacrifices she made for them, Josie learnt to respect her and at the same time changed her perspective about her. As we can all see, changes are inevitable and unavoidable, they are constantly taking place in our lives no matter whether they have a good or bad impact upon us and there is no denying in its existence. Changes can be seen with our own eyes, as it occurs, we change physically all the time with our appearances, the way we look, the way we dress, and to keep up to date with the fashion and change with the crowd that is ever evolving so we are not a left over. We can change mentally, as we go through life, because of all the emotions that are constantly rushing through us, which also effects and changes our mood as well as our way of socializing with other people. If we say that we will continue on as we are, unchanged and unchanging, it is also like saying that we are frozen in a space of time and everything else around it, because changes comes with time, and if there is no change, then time would no longer exist. How to cite Sky High, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
Executive Summary This report begins by describing the importance of information to an organization. It continues byemphasizing on the need for information systems in proper and effective management of this information.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Information systems and fundamentals specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In response to the first and second question in assessment 2 this report contains in its appendix a context diagram and a level zero data flow diagram (DFD) obtained from an analysis of the current scenario at the manufacturing company aimed at identifying information bottlenecks that exist. In response to the third and fourth question of assessment 2 the topic of ethics is introduced and the principles of ethics involved in scenario part B stated and explained. This report concludes thatorganizations should incorporate information systems so as to better manage their information. However, before incorporating them they should carry out a scenario analysis so as to ensure that functional requirements of the system are known. Introduction The importance of information to an organization can be likened to that of blood in a human being. An organization that manages and protects its information well is more likely to achieve its mission as it is outlined in its mission statement than one which does not. Information systems are the means through which organizations manage and protect their information. Information systems enable organizations to fit in the dynamic context (market) their find themselves in and in addition enable them to maintain knowledge of their internal workings.Advertising Looking for report on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Basically, the mechanism of an information system consists of hardware and software that creates and stores a log of other vital systems in the organization , which are known as target systems. An example of a target system can be the human resource system in an organization. According to Shelly, Cashman and Vermaat, five types of information systems exist (1999). The first three types are office information systems, transaction processing systems and management information systems. The fourth and fifth types of information systems are decision support systems and expert systems. Discussion A context diagram also known as a level zero data flow diagram (DFD) is a DFD with a single massive central process that is the relationship between all the entities involved (SmartDraw, 2012). Context diagrams are critical in ensuring that the scope of analysis is limited to the system or scenario under investigation (Precision Quality Software, 2011). Context diagrams are also essential because they ensure that the functional requirements of a system that is to be created to solve a given problem are not overlooked (Precision Quality Software, 2011 ). A typical context diagram comprises of external entities, a single massive central process, data flows and /or resource flows(SmartDraw, 2012). Appendix A and appendix B show the context diagram and level zero data flow diagram of the scenario at the manufacturing company as it is described in scenario part A of assessment 2.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Information systems and fundamentals specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These two diagrams are the end result of an analysis aimed at identifying the information bottlenecks at the manufacturing company. The rectangles in the context diagram and level zero data flow diagram represent external entities, the circle represents the single massive central process and the arrows represent the data and/or resource flow. The external entities comprise the various departments of the manufacturing company (e.g. Accounts, Marketing, RD, HR), company staff, company gen eral manager and government departments. The single massive central process is an information system. As pointed out above, the information system connects all these external entities together. One flow of data is between the information system and the Accounts, Manufacturing, RD and Marketing departments. These departments request weekly reports showing for each staff member, annual and sick leave due and taken, any staff member who will be due for long service leave within the next six months and the total wages bill for that department, Month-to-Date and Year-to-Date. The information system accepts these requests, processes them, generates the reports and sends them to the relevant department. Another flow of data is between the information system and companyÃ¢â¬â¢s staff. Company staff invoke queries against the information system so as to viewwage and leave information.Advertising Looking for report on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The information system accepts these queries, processes them and returns results for each query. Another flow of information exists between the information system and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Human Resource (HR) department. The information system ensures that staff wage and leave requests go directly to the HR department. The information system also ensures that the HR department is notified on any resignations or vacant positions in the Accounts, Manufacturing, RD and Marketing departments. The information system in addition to these allows the HR department to store and maintain a file of rates from the different advertising newspapers and journals. Another information flow exists between the information system and government departments. This information flow ensures that the government departments receive monthly notifications on staff statistics. The final information flow is between the information system and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s general manager. This information flow ensures that the general manager requests and receives summarized weekly and monthly departmental reports. Copyright laws in Australia give the owner of the copyright exclusive rights to his or her works and state clearly that any other person who wishes to use copyrighted work in a manner not accommodated in the laws should obtain permission from the owner (Australian Copyright Council, 2007). The copyright laws proceed to state thatuse or reproduction of essential parts of copyrighted work without the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s permission amounts to infringement of copyright laws(Australian Copyright Council, 2007). Another way in which infringement of the copyright laws occurs is when an entity authorizes infringement(Australian Copyright Council, 2007). Authorization of infringement occurs when an entity endorses work that that is in itself an infringement of Australian copyright laws(Australian Copyright Council, 2007). Authorization of infringement also occurs when an entity abets another entity to i nfringe Australian copyright laws(Australian Copyright Council, 2007). Another way in which infringement of Australian copyright laws occurs is when an entity imports certain types of items that contain material that is copyrighted(Australian Copyright Council, 2007). Lastly, infringement of Australian copyright laws also occurs when an entity sells material that is itself an infringement of the laws or sells items that contain material that infringes the laws(Australian Copyright Council, 2007). The video by Shane Warne discussed in scenario part B of assessment 2 is protected by the Australian copyright law on films, sound recordings, broadcasts and published editions. As such Shane Warne possesses exclusive rights to its reproduction. In a business context ethics enlighten an organization on the acceptable behavior to adopt in pursuing its interests at the point in which the organization may held accountable for its actions by another entity (MacDonald, n.d.). A lack of ethics ca n be detrimental to an organization as any action it takes that involves other external entities places it at the risk of lawsuits. The lawsuits can significantly cut down on the profits of the organization. According to the ACS code of ethics one ethical principle involved in the scenario discussed in the second part of assessment 2 is adhering tothe Australian laws (Australian Computer Society Inc., 2012). The ACS code of ethics states that its members should adhere to the Australian laws. Another ethical principle involved is the ability of its members to put the interests of the public first, that is, their own interests (business or not) should come second(Australian Computer Society Inc., 2012).This ethical principle ensures the safeguarding of the interests of immediate stakeholders. Another ethical principle outlined in ACS code of ethics that is involved in the scenario discussed in the second part of assessment 2 is honesty and trustworthiness(Australian Computer Society I nc., 2012). The ACS code of ethics points out thathonesty and trustworthiness is one way in which to avoid conflict of interests. Another ethical principle outlined in ACS code of ethics that is involved in the scenario discussed in the second part of assessment 2 is honoring of property rights, which includes copyrights and patents. The ACS code of ethics preaches that behavior that leads to and that encourages violation of property rights is unprofessional and should be avoided. The ACS code of ethics additionally underpins the importance of seeking authorization from the owners of copyrighted materials before creating a duplicate of copyrighted material. Another ethical principle outlined in ACS code of ethics that is involved in the scenario discussed in the second part of assessment 2 is giving proper and deserved credit to the owners of intellectual property(Australian Computer Society Inc., 2012). The ACS code of ethics preaches that is proper discipline to give proper credit to the owners of intellectual property even if the property is not protected by Australian copyright or patent laws. Recommendations This report recommends that Helen backs SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s option of purchasing Shane WarneÃ¢â¬â¢s video. This is because SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s option is more ethical compared to ChenÃ¢â¬â¢s option. SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s option endorses all of the ethical principles discussed above. ChenÃ¢â¬â¢s option encourages infringement of Australian copyright laws as well as disregards the ethical principles outlined above and therefore this report does not recommend it to Helen. Conclusion This report concludes that organizations should incorporate information systems so as to better manage and protect their information. Before incorporating the information system it is imperative for the organization to do a scenario analysis and come up with context diagrams so as to ensure that all the functional requirements of the system are known. References Australian Copyright Coun cil, 2007, An Introduction to Copyright in Australia. Web. Australian Computer Society Inc., 2012, ACS Code of Ethics and Code of Conduct.Ã Web. MacDonald, C., Definition: business ethics. Web. Precision Quality Software, 2011, Context Diagrams: an explanation. Web. Shelly, Cashman and Vermaat, 1999, Types of information systems. Web. Smart Draw 2012, Context diagrams. Web. Appendix Appendix A Context diagram Appendix B Level zero Dataflow diagram This report on Information systems and fundamentals was written and submitted by user Leilani Pennington to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
The Handwritten Note The Handwritten Note The Handwritten Note By Maeve Maddox As public school districts drop instruction in cursive handwriting, and young bloggers reflect with amazement that Ã¢â¬Å"there was a time where [sic] just about everything was handwritten,Ã¢â¬ itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to believe that no one under the age of 105 would dream of sending a handwritten note to a friend, colleague, or client. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t you believe it. Far from belonging to the analog past, the handwritten note has found a place in the high-tech world of business. Forbes, the Huffington Post, and The Wall Street Journal, as well as lesser publications and business sites, feature articles on the value of the handwritten note. In a time when people are deluged with emails and junk mail, the handwritten note stands out like a raven in the snow. In the business world, standing out is good. Business consultants and CEOs donÃ¢â¬â¢t simply recommend the use of handwritten notes to prospective clients; some require it. In an article at Forbes, Jessica Kleiman mentions a colleague who requires his sales staff to turn in photocopies of the thank-you notes that they send during the week; he wants to know they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t relying on email alone. She also cites a magazine editor who wonÃ¢â¬â¢t hire a job applicant who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t send Ã¢â¬Å"a real noteÃ¢â¬ following the interview, Ã¢â¬Å"no matter how impressive they were in person.Ã¢â¬ Handwritten notes are not only good business, but good human relations, little candles shining in a naughty world. In an increasingly impersonal world in which telephones are answered by robots, and the mail brings piles of glossy junk, a handwritten note says, Ã¢â¬Å"Hello, I know youÃ¢â¬â¢re there; I like and respect you enough to take some time to let you know that you matter.Ã¢â¬ John Coleman says that part of what makes a handwritten note so valuable is that it costs more than digital communication: [Unlike email] handwritten notes are unusual. They take minutes (or hours) to draft, each word carefully chosen with no Ã¢â¬Å"undoÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"autocorrectÃ¢â¬ to fall back on. Drafting one involves selecting stationery, paying for stamps, and visiting a mailbox. They indicate investment, and that very costliness indicates value. If, as the U.S. Postal Service notes, we only receive a handwritten letter once every two months, each of those letters likely means more to us than the Ã¢â¬Å"cheaperÃ¢â¬ communication we receive each day. Ã¢â¬âHarvard Business Review Sometimes people are so startled to receive a handwritten note they send a thank-you note in reply. The occasion of a handwritten note can even be newsworthy: [John F. McKeon, a New Jersey assemblyman,] was surprised to receive a handwritten note from Mr. Christie, telling him that he had heard the comments, and that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like them. [President Obama] has sent a handwritten note to one art historian apologizing for his Ã¢â¬Å"off-the-cuff remarks,Ã¢â¬ which he said were intended as a commentary on the market, not the value of art history. No doubt about itÃ¢â¬âhandwritten notes get attention. Next time youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the office supply store replenishing your toner, you might want to add some quality notepaper and a nice pen to your order. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Business Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:16 Substitutes for Ã¢â¬Å"BecauseÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Because OfÃ¢â¬ 7 Patterns of Sentence StructureGrammatical Case in English
Monday, March 2, 2020
The 18th Amendment Began the Era of Prohibition The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol, which began the era ofÃ Prohibition. Ratified on Jan. 16, 1919, the 18th Amendment was repealed by the 21st Amendment on Dec. 5, 1933. In the over 200 years of U.S. Constitutional Law, the 18th Amendment remains the only amendment to ever have been repealed.Ã The 18th Amendment Key Takeaways The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution banned the manufacture and distribution of alcohol (known as Prohibition), on Jan. 16, 1919.Ã The major force behind Prohibition was 150 years of pressure by the Temperance Movement, combined with the ideals of the early 20th century Progressive Movement.The result was the destruction of an entire industry, including loss of jobs and tax revenue, and general lawlessness as people openly flaunted the law.Ã The Great Depression was an instrumental reason for its repeal.Ã The 21st Amendment repealing the 18th was ratified in December 1933, the only amendment ever to be repealed. Text of the 18th Amendment Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. Proposal of the 18th AmendmentÃ The road to national prohibition was riddled with a plethora of states laws that mirrored a national sentiment for temperance. Of the states that already had bans on manufacturing and distributing alcohol, very few had sweeping successes as a result, but the 18th Amendment sought to remedy this.Ã On August 1, 1917, the U.S. Senate passed a resolution detailing a version of the above three sections to be presented to states for ratification. The vote passed 65 to 20 with Republicans voting 29 in favor and 8 in opposition while the Democrats voted 36 to 12.Ã On December 17, 1917, the U.S. House of Representatives voted in favor of a revised resolution 282 to 128, with Republicans voting 137 to 62 and Democrats voting 141 to 64. Additionally, four independents voted for and two against it. The Senate approved this revised version the next day with a vote of 47 to 8 where it then went on to the States for ratification. Ratification of the 18th Amendment The 18th Amendment was ratified on January 16, 1919, in Washington, D.C. with Nebraskas for vote pushing the amendment over the required 36 states needed to approve the bill. Of the 48 states in the U.S. at the time (Hawaii and Alaska became states in the U.S. in 1959), only Connecticut and Rhode Island rejected the amendment, though New Jersey did not ratify it until three years later in 1922.Ã The National Prohibition Act was written to define the language and execution of the amendment and despite President Woodrow Wilsons attempt to veto the act, Congress and the Senate overrode his veto and set the start date for prohibition in the United States to January 17, 1920, the earliest date allowed by the 18th Amendment.Ã The Temperance Movement Temperance Parade. Chicago History Museum/Getty Images At the time of its passage, the 18th Amendment was the culmination of well over a century of activity by members of the temperance movement- people who wanted the total abolishment of alcohol. In the mid-19th century in the United States and elsewhere, the rejection of alcohol began as a religious movement, but it never gained traction: The revenue from the alcohol industry was phenomenal even then. As the new century turned, however, so did the focus of the temperance leadership.Ã Temperance became a platform of the Progressive Movement, a political and cultural movement that was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution. The Progressives wanted to clean up slums, end child labor, enforce shorter working hours, improve working conditions for people in factories, and stop excessive drinking. Banning alcohol, they felt, would protect the family, aid personal success, and reduce or eliminate crime and poverty.Ã The leaders of the movement were in the Anti-Saloon League of America, who, allied with the Womens Christian Temperance Union mobilized the Protestant churches and obtained major funding from businessmen and the corporate elite. Their activities were instrumental in achieving the two-thirds majority needed in both houses to initiate what would become the 18th Amendment.Ã The Volstead ActÃ The original wording of the 18th amendment barred the manufacture, sale, transportation, and exportation of intoxicating beverages, but it didnt define what intoxicating meant. Many of the people who supported the 18th amendment believed that the real problem was saloons and that drinking was acceptable in respectable settings.Ã The 18th amendment didnt prohibit imports (the Webb-Kenyon Act of 1913 did that) but Webb-Kenyon only enforced the imports when it was illegal in the receiving states. At first, people who wanted alcohol could get it semi-legally and safely.Ã But the Volstead Act, which was passed by Congress and then came into effect on January 16, 1920, defined the intoxicating level at .05 percent alcohol by volume. The utilitarian arm of the temperance movement wanted to ban saloons and control alcohol production: People believed their own drinking was blameless, but it was bad for everyone else and the society at large. The Volstead Act made that untenable: If you wanted alcohol, you now had to get it illegally.Ã The Volstead Act also created the first Prohibition Unit, in which men and women were hired at the federal level to serve as prohibition agents. Consequences of the 18th AmendmentÃ The result of the combined 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act was economic devastation in the liquor industry. In 1914, there were 318 wineries, in 1927 there were 27. Liquor wholesalers were cut by 96 percent, and the number of legal retailers by 90 percent. Between 1919 and 1929, tax revenue from distilled spirits dropped from $365 million to under $13 million; revenues from fermented liquors went from $117 million to virtually nothing.Ã Bans on liquor importation and exportation crippled American ocean liners who were competing with other countries. Farmers lost the legal market of their crops to distilleries. Its not that the framers didnt realize that they would be losing the tax revenue they got from the alcohol industry (not to mention job loss and raw material market loss): They simply believed after World War I that prosperity and economic growth would be adequately bolstered by the gains of the Progressive movement, including doing away with alcohol, to overcome any initial costs.Ã BootleggingÃ Marcia Frost One main consequence of the 18th Amendment was the steepÃ increase in smuggling and bootlegging- massive quantities of alcohol were smuggled out of Canada or made in small stills. There was no funding provided in the 18th Amendment for federal policing or prosecuting drink-related crimes. Although the Volstead Act created the first federal Prohibition Units, it didnt really become effective at the national level until 1927. State courts became clogged with alcohol-related cases.Ã When voters recognized that even near beer productions by the limping alcohol manufacturers Coors, Miller, and Anheuser Busch were now not legally accessible, tens of millions of people refused to obey the law. Illegal operations to manufacture alcohol and speakeasies to distribute it were rife. Juries would often not convict bootleggers, who were seen as Robin Hood figures. Despite the level of overall criminality, the mass violations by the public created lawlessness and a widespread disrespect for the law.Ã Rise of the MafiaÃ The opportunities for making money in the bootlegging business were not lost on organized crime in the United States. As legitimate alcohol businesses closed, the Mafia and other gangs took control of its production and sale. These became sophisticated criminal enterprises that reaped huge profits from the illicit liquor trade.Ã The Mafia were protected by crooked police and politicians who were bribed to look the other way. The most notorious of the Mafia dons was Chicagos Al Capone, who earned an estimated $60 million annually from his bootlegging and speakeasy operations. Income from bootlegging flowed into the old vices of gambling and prostitution, and the resulting widespread criminality and violence added to the growing demand for repeal. Although there were arrests during the 1920s, the Mafias lock on bootlegging was only successfully broken by repeal. Support for Repeal The growth of support for the repeal of the 18th amendment had everything to do with the promises of the Progressive movement balanced with the devastation of the Great Depression.Ã But even before the stock market crash in 1929, the Progressive reform movement, which had seemed so idyllic in its plan for a healthier society, lost credibility. The Anti-Saloon League insisted on zero tolerance and aligned itself with distasteful elements such as the Ku Klux Klan. Young people saw progressive reform as a suffocating status quo. Many prominent officials warned about the consequences of lawlessness: Herbert Hoover made it a central plank on his successful bid for the presidency in 1928. A year after the stock market crashed, six million men were out of work; in the first three years after the crash, an average of 100,000 workers were fired every week. The politicians who had argued that progressivism would bring prosperity were now held responsible for the depression.Ã By the early 1930s, the same corporate and religious elite people who supported the establishment of the 18th Amendment now lobbied for its repeal. One of the first was Standard Oils John D. Rockefeller, Jr., a major financial supporter of the 18th Amendment. On the night before the 1932 Republican convention, Rockefeller said that he now supported repeal of the Amendment, despite being a teetotaler on principle.Ã Repeal of the 18th Amendment After Rockefeller, many other businessmen signed on, saying that the benefits of prohibition were far outweighed by the costs. There was a growing socialist movement in the country, and people were organizing into unions: The elite businessmen including Pierre Du Pont of Du Pont manufacturing and Alfred P. Sloan Jr. of General Motors were frankly terrified.Ã The political parties were more cautious: Both were for Resubmission of the 18th amendment to the states and if the popular vote agreed, they would move to repeal it. But they were split on who would receive economic benefits. The Republicans wanted liquor control to lie with the federal government, while the Democrats wanted it returned to the states. In 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. quietly endorsed repeal: His main promises for the presidency were balanced budgets and fiscal integrity. After he won and the Democrats swept in with him in December 1933, the lame-duck 72nd Congress reconvened and the Senate voted to submit the 21st Amendment to state conventions. The House approved it in February. In March 1933, Roosevelt asked Congress to modify the Volstead Act to allow 3.2 percent near beer and in April it was legal in most of the country. FDR had two cases shipped to the White House. On Dec. 5, 1933, Utah became the 36th state to ratify the 21st Amendment, and the 18th Amendment was repealed.Ã Sources Blocker Jr., Jack S. Did Prohibition Really Work? Alcohol Prohibition as a Public Health Innovation. American Journal of Public Health 96.2 (2006): 233Ã¢â¬â43. Print.Bourdreaux, Donald J., and A.C. Pritchard. The Price of Prohibition. Arizona Law Review 36 (1994). Print.Dietler, Michael. Alcohol: Anthropological/Archaeological Perspectives. Annual Review of Anthropology 35.1 (2006): 229Ã¢â¬â49. Print.Levine, Harry Gene. The Birth of American Alcohol Control: Prohibition, the Power Elite, and the Problem of Lawlessness. Contemporary Drug Problems 12 (1985): 63Ã¢â¬â115. Print.Miron, Jeffrey A., and Jeffrey Zwiebel. Alcohol Consumption During Prohibition. The American Economic Review 81.2 (1991): 242Ã¢â¬â47. Print.Webb, Holland. Temperance Movements and Prohibition. International Social Science Review 74.1/2 (1999): 61Ã¢â¬â69. Print.